Background

I am a research economist with experience in academia, the public and voluntary sectors, and consultancy work.

My research is mainly applied econometric and statistical work using large national datasets, including both pooled cross-sections and panel data. My research interests include charities and nonprofits, migration, social care, evaluation of learning, and the economics of volunteering, with an emphasis on the implications for public policy.

I am currently a lecturer in quantitative methods at the University of Stirling.

My PhD research in Economics was awarded in April 2011 by the University of Stirling in Scotland. My PhD examined the voluntary (non-profit) sector labour market in the UK, and the wage-setting behaviour of charities and NGO’s particularly in the Health & Social Work services. My PhD supervisors were Prof. David Bell and Prof. Sascha Becker.

My PhD research proposal was approved and fully funded by the UK’s Economic & Social Research Council (ESRC) for three years. In May to July 2009 I undertook an ESRC-funded Overseas University Visit to the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universit├Ąt in Munich, Germany.

Click to download a copy of my current full CV. (Updated January 2013)


Publications

Bell, D.N.F. & Rutherford, A. C. (2013) "Working Time and Older Workers" The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, (forthcoming)

Bell, D.N.F. & Rutherford, A. C. (2013) "Individual and Geographic Factors in the Formation of Care Networks in the UK" Population, Space and Place, (forthcoming)
| PSP |

Bell, D.N.F., Rutherford, A. C. & Wright, R.E. (2013) "Free Personal Care for Older People: A Wider Perspective on Its Costs" Economic Commentary, Vol. 36, No. 3

Bell, D.N.F. & Rutherford, A. C. (2012) "Long-Term Care and the Housing Market" Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 59, No. 5
| Working Paper Version | SJPE |

Rutherford, A. C. (2012) "The ‘Ins’ and ‘Outs’ of Working in the UK Voluntary Sector" Voluntary Sector Review, Vol 3, No. 3

Rutherford, A. (2012). Get By With a Little Help From My Friends: A Recent History of Charitable Organisations in Economic Theory. In: Faccarello, G. & Sturn, R. Studies in the History of Public Economics. Routledge
ISBN 978-0-415-69514-5

Rutherford, A. C. (2010) "Get By With a Little Help From My Friends: A Recent History of Charitable Organisations in Economic Theory" European Journal of the History of Economic Thought; Volume 17, Issue 4, pages 1031 - 1046
Working paper version | EJHET

Rutherford, A. C. (2010) Measuring the Social Economy in Scotland; Research Report; Scottish Government;

Rutherford, A. C. (2009) Engaging the Scottish Diaspora: Rationale, Benefits and Challenges;Research Report; Scottish Government;
ISBN 978 0 7559 7593 8
Available from the Scottish Government

Working Papers

These are research papers that I am currently working on. Please contact me if you would like more information, or would like to cite any of these papers.

Rutherford, A.C. (2012) “Networks of Informal Caring: a Mixed Methods Approach”, (presented at the International Conference on Evidence-based Policy in Long-term Care (London), and the National Council of Voluntary Organisations ‘Researching the Voluntary Sector’ Conference (Birmingham); both in September 2012)

Rutherford, A.C. (2011) “Understanding Volunteering: A Quantitative Analysis of Urban/Rural Differences in Participation”; (under review)

Rutherford, A.C. (2010) “On the Up: Voluntary Sector Wages in the UK 1998 to 2007” (revise and resubmit at Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly)

Rutherford, A.C. (2009) “Where is the Warm Glow? Donated Labour in the Health & Social Work Industries”; Stirling Economics Discussion Paper 2009-20

News, Conferences & Presentations

Updates on my research, upcoming conferences and presentations.

Wednesday, 25 November 2009

Conference :: VSSN Day Conference

I will be presenting my working paper "On the Up: Changing Trends in Voluntary Sector Wages in the UK 1998 - 2007" at the Voluntary Sector Studies Network (VSSN) Day Conference on Wednesday 2nd December in Birmingham.  Details of the conference can be found here.

Abstract
Since 1997 the UK Government has sought to expand the provision of public services by the independent nonprofit, or “voluntary”, sector. With policies to build the capacity of the sector, public spending on voluntary organisations has grown from around £2 billion in 1996/97 to £6.88 billion in 2005/06. Theory suggests that the comparative advantage of nonprofits lies in the mission-motivation of those who work in them. Examining sector wage differentials in time-series to show that growth in voluntary sector wages has outpaced the private and public sectors, we argue that this state intervention in the market has had big consequences for the make-up of the voluntary sector workforce.

Tuesday, 10 November 2009

WORKSHOP :: IAREP Economic Psychology of Giving, Public Goods and Leadership

I will be presenting my paper "Where is the Warm Glow? Donated Labour and Nonprofit Wage Differentials in the Health & Social Work Industries" at the IAREP Workshop on the economic psychology of giving, public goods and leadership on Friday 13th and Saturday 14th November at the University of Kent.

The full text of the paper can be found here.

Thursday, 1 October 2009

WORKING PAPER :: Where is the Warm Glow?

My Working Paper "Where is the Warm Glow? Donated Labour and Nonprofit Wage Differentials in the Health and Social Work Industries" has been included in the Stirling Economics Discussion Papers series.

Abstract
The “Warm Glow” theory of worker motivation in nonprofit organisations predicts that wages will be lower in the voluntary sector than for equivalent workers in the private and public sectors. Empirical findings, however, are mixed. Focussing on the Health & Social Work industries, we examine differences in levels of unpaid overtime between the sectors to test for the existence of a warm-glow effect. Although levels of unpaid overtime are significantly higher in voluntary sector, we find that this is insufficient to explain the wage premiums earned in this sector.

Thursday, 10 September 2009

CONFERENCE :: SCVO Third Sector Research Conference 2009

I will be presenting my paper "Comparing Job Quality Between the Private, Public and Voluntary Sectors: Evidence from WERS 2004 " at the Scottish Council of Voluntary Organisations (SCVO) Third Sector Research Conference on Monday 26th October 2009.

Tuesday, 11 August 2009

CONFERENCE :: 11th Annual INFER Conference

I will be presenting my paper "The Good Life: Comparing Job Quality Between the Private, Public and Voluntary Sector"at the 11th Annual International Network for Economic Research (INFER) Conference.

The Conference takes place on 4th to 6th September 2009 at the University of Stirling.

My abstract is available here.

Tuesday, 4 August 2009

CONFERENCE :: NCVO/VSSN "Researching the Voluntary Sector" 2009

I will be presenting my paper "Comparing Job Quality Between the Private, Public and Voluntary Sectors: Evidence from WERS 2004" at the NCVO/VSSN Researching the Voluntary Sector 2009 conference at the University of Warwick on 7th & 8th September 2009.

You can find the provisional programme for the conference here. The abstract for my paper is available here.

Wednesday, 27 May 2009

ACADEMIC VISIT :: Ludwig Maximilians University (LMU), Munich


Outside the offices of the Centre for Economic Studies (CES) at the Ludwig Maximilians University (LMU) in Munich, Germany.

Tuesday, 12 May 2009

Wednesday, 29 April 2009

ACADEMIC VISIT :: Ludwig Maximilians University (LMU), Munich

In May this year I will begin a three-month visit to the department of economics at the Ludwig Maximilians University (LMU) in Munich, Germany.

The visit has been funded by the UK Economic & Social Research Council (ESRC) through their Overseas University Visit scheme, and will be hosted by Prof. Ekkehart Schlicht.

In addition to the regular economics faculty, LMU hosts two institutes: the Center for Economic Studies (CES), which has a dedicated visitor's program for overseas researchers; and the Ifo Institute, an economic policy research institute which combines theoretical and empirical economic research.

Monday, 20 April 2009

CONFERENCE :: Scottish Economic Society

I will be presenting my paper "Where is the Warm Glow? Nonprofit Wage Differentials and Donated Labour in the Health & Social Work Industries" at the Scottish Economic Society conference in Perth on 27th to 29th April 2009.

Abstract
Are workers in the voluntary sector paid less than their colleagues in the private or public sectors? In the UK the voluntary (or nonprofit) sector makes up about 5% of the workforce, with 60% of these workers employed in the health and social work industries. Using data from ten years of the UK Labour Force Survey (LFS), this paper finds significant voluntary sector wage premiums in these industries, contradicting "warm glow" theories of nonprofit wage-setting. Even after imputing adjusted wages to account for sector differences in unpaid overtime, little evidence is found for a nonprofit "warm glow" wage discount.

Wednesday, 25 March 2009

CONFERENCE :: European Civil Society Ph.D. Network

I will be attending the 9th Annual Meeting of the European Civil Society Ph.D. Dissertation Network at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium on May 28-31, 2009.

Abstract: In Search of the “Warm Glow”: The Labour Market in the Voluntary Sector

How does pay determination in the voluntary sector differ from the public and private sectors? Are workers in the voluntary sector paid more or less than their colleagues in the private or public sectors? The “warm glow” theory of motivated agents predicts that workers in the voluntary sector will make “donations” to their employer in the form of lower wages or additional unpaid hours. My paper uses data from the United Kingdom on workers and organisations in the private, public and voluntary sectors to test this theory by exploring the effects on wages of both individual workers’ characteristics and organisational features.

If workers are to get a warm glow from their voluntary sector job, then we should expect to find that these workers gain satisfaction from their jobs, feel loyal to their employer, and share the mission and goals of the organisation. I use a linked employer-employee dataset to investigate this theory empirically. In examining sector differences in job satisfaction, I also investigate the role of relative earnings between workers in determining job satisfaction in voluntary organisations. I find some evidence of higher job satisfaction within the voluntary sector, but this seems to be explained by greater levels of pay equality rather than by higher utility from work.

Overall, my results suggest that the ‘warm glow’ theory of voluntary sector wage determination is insufficient to explain observed behaviour in the labour market, particularly within the health & social work industries.

Past Conference Paper Presentations

  • NCVO/VSSN Researching the Voluntary Sector Conference, London (Sept 2011)
  • NCVO/VSSN Researching the Voluntary Sector Conference, University of Leeds (Sept 2010)
  • EEA Congress 2010, University of Glasgow (Aug 2010)
  • Work Pensions and Labour Economics (WPEG) 2010, University of Bristol (Jul 2010)
  • EALE/SOLE 2010 3rd International Conference, University College London (Jun 2010)
  • Spring Meeting of Young Economists (SMYE), Luxembourg (Apr 2010)
  • Scottish Economic Society Conference, Perth (Apr 2010)
  • SGPE Conference, Peebles (Jan 2010)
  • VSSN Day Conference, Third Sector Research Centre (Dec 2009)
  • IAREP Economic Psychology of Giving, Public Goods and Leadership, University of Kent (Nov 2009)
  • NCVO/VSSN Researching the Voluntary Sector Conference, University of Warwick (Sept 2009)
  • INFER Conference, University of Stirling (Sept 2009)
  • European PhD Network on the Third Sector and Civil Society, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium (May 2009)
  • Scottish Economic Society Conference, Perth (Apr 2009)
  • International Labour Process Conference (ILPC) 2009, Edinburgh (Apr 2009)
  • SGPE Conference, Peebles (Jan 2009)
  • History of Public Economics Conference, ERMES / Panthéon Assas University, Paris (Dec 2008)
  • Management Research for the Third Sector Symposium, University of St. Andrew's (Nov 2008)
  • NCVO/VSSN Researching the Voluntary Sector Conference, University of Warwick (Sept 2008)
  • European PhD Network on the Third Sector and Civil Society, Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania (May 2008)
  • SGPE Conference, Dunblane (Jan 2008)
  • “Moving Forward” Postgraduate Conference, University of Aberdeen (Jun 2007)
  • SGPE Conference, Dunblane (Jan 2007)

Other Writing

Please contact me if you would like more information on any of the projects below, or would like to cite any of this work.
  • Media Article
    Article on the Guardian Online, on the 'ins' and 'outs of working in the voluntary sector: Why do staff join and leave the voluntary sector?;
  • Guest Blog Post
    Opinion Piece on www.civilsociety.co.uk on the pay inequality and the professionalisation of the voluntary sector;
  • Research Summary:
    Paying the Price for Care: Estimating Wage Differentials between the Private, Public & Voluntary Sectors (2008)
    Full Text
  • Policy Report:
    Reviewing the Approaches of the UK Department of International Development (DFID) and four Development NGOs to the Monitoring & Evaluation of International Development Projects and Policy (2008)
    Written as part of a 3-month placement at the Scottish Government
  • Policy Report:
    Assessment of the Economic Impact of Trading Standards Services (TSS) (2007)
    Written as part of a Summer internship with the Office of Fair Trading (OFT)
  • MSc Dissertation:
    Modelling the Provision of Care for Older People in Scotland: A Quasi-Market Approach (2006)
    Full Text

Datasets

In my research I work with a number of large national UK datasets. These include:
  • UK Labour Force Survey (LFS)
  • Workplace Employment Relations Survey (WERS)
  • British Household Panel Survey (BHPS)
  • Scottish Household Survey (SHS)
  • English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA)